Sunday, September 22, 2019
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CBD for Seizures in Dogs

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Pet lovers know the stress and difficulty of watching your pets suffer when they are sick. Seizures in dogs are frequent and can leave owners feeling helpless. Your dog may be suffering from seizures if you find it shaking uncontrollably for several minutes.

There are many reasons why dogs experience seizures. Some of these examples are cancer, head injuries, kidney or liver disease. Epilepsy is a common cause of seizures in dogs. Your dog may be suffering from epilepsy if it suffers from frequent seizures. Although it is hard to explain what happens when dogs have epilepsy, it can be described as regular uncontrolled electricity flowing through the brain. Unfortunately, there is no clear-cut cure for epilepsy. However, many pet owners have been using a compound derived from cannabis to manag seizures caused by epilepsy in dogs.

Cannabidiol or CBD is a chemical compound derived from the cannabis plant. After extraction, CBD is usually mixed with other natural carrier oils. Researchers have discovered that CBD has a lot of medical benefits. This cannabis compound does not have any psychoactive effect.

Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC is another compound in the cannabis plant that has a psychoactive effect. Studies have revealed that CBD works with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) which is spread throughout the body. It would interest you to know that it is not just humans that have an ECS. All vertebrates and invertebrates have ECS. When CBD oil is ingested, it interacts with receptors in the ECS. The brain has the highest ECS receptors. The spinal column and the nervous system also have a high concentration of ESC receptors.

One of the primary illnesses that CBD has been used to treat is epilepsy. The US Food and Drug Authority (FDA) has approved a CBD-based drug for the treatment of epilepsy in children. Although there are many stories online about managing seizures in dogs with CBD, it is better to seek medical advice before giving it to your dog. A licensed veterinary will be able to tell you the best dosage, and they type of CBD product to use. Although most people use CBD oils and tinctures, others say CBD chewable tablets may be better or preferred by some dogs.

If you choose CBD, then there are some things to consider. The first is to be sure that the brand of CBD oil you are buying is natural. It is essential that the hemp plant from which the CBD oil is derived is grown in areas where there is no chemical pollution. The method of extraction is equally crucial. You want to be sure that the extraction method is state-of-the-art and does not involve heat which is known to damage some components of CBD. Finally, you should conduct some research into the company that manufactures the CBD oil you intend to buy.

BEYOND CANNABINOIDS: FACTS ABOUT THE FLAVONOIDS

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The cannabis plant contains over 200 compounds. We’ve already written about some of the 80 cannabinoids found in cannabis and discussed the function of terpenes, but we have yet to speak about flavonoids. They account for around 20 compounds from the 200, so it’s worth learning a thing or two.

The word flavonoid comes from the latin word “flavus”, which means yellow. It goes hand in hand with their function in plants – they’re important plant pigments, producing yellow and red/blue colour in petals to attract pollinator animals like bees.

In cannabis, the flavonoids are called cannaflavins and their main function is to provide the unique smell, taste, vibrant colour and overall sensory experience of each cannabis strain. The distribution of cannaflavins depends mainly on genetics and growing conditions. It is now possible to extract them allowing for a more concentrated sample with stronger tastes and smells, that could be used to supplement your normal cannabis consumption. They do not add to the “high” as they are not psychoactive, but they have a relaxing effect similar to CBD.

Flavonoids play an important role in cultivation too. Various flavonoids are expressed during cannabis growth and operate in areas like UV filtering and prevention from pest and fungi.

flavonoidsGenerally, flavonoids are members of the largest nutrient family scientists know. There are around 6,000 flavonoids identified so far. They’re present in many foods that we consume every day, like citrus fruits, blueberries, cacao and herbs. For example “catechins” found in green tea and cacao, and “quercetin” present in fruit, vegetables and cannabis are known for producing antioxidants. It is important that the plant is grown properly to allow for the full range of flavonoids it can offer.

Cannaflavins are currently being researched and there is still a lot to learn. Scientists are discovering how the presence of common cannabis flavonoids like β-sitosterol, vitexin, isovitexin, apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, and orientin work in relation to cannabinoids and terpenes under the overall entourage effect.

Want to do your own research? Try our terpene infused CBD e-liquids with flavours from the original cannabis strains and use the coupon harmony10 to get 10% off your first order!

TOP 6 METHODS TO INGEST CANNABIS

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The cannabis industry is saturated with different products that allow the user to ingest cannabis in different ways. However, not everyone is aware that the way you ingest cannabis will influence its effect on the body.

We explained the function of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in this article already. To summarize – the effect of cannabis is always influenced by the receptors to which it binds to, and this is further influenced by the method of ingestion.

Smoking

cannabis ingestionWhen you smoke cannabis, you are heating it at a high temperature, which in turn, changes the chemical structure. When smoking, you make cannabis psychoactive, because the THCa in raw cannabis is changed to the psychoactive THC form. The process is called decarboxylation and affects all the acids, not just THCa.

However, smoking isn’t the healthiest way to consume cannabis, because the mouth tissues and lung cells are exposed to the smoke which can cause damage. If you need to consume a high dosage of cannabis regularly, there are many healthier alternatives to explore.

Vaporization

cannabisIf you like the immediate relaxation effect after smoking, but want to avoid the risk associated with combustion, vaporization is a good way to go for you! When you vaporize the herb, it is heated to a point in which it doesn’t burn, so carbon monoxide and toxic hydrocarbon intake is reduced. Vaporizing is also much more efficient than combustion, the smoke you inhale from vaporizer consists of approximately 95% cannabinoids, compared to 15 %  when you smoke.

You also have more options with vaporizing as well. For example, there are many e-liquids infused with cannabinoids that you can choose from at different concentrations. Vaporizing delivers the compounds straight to the bloodstream and brain for a quick effect, in the same way smoking does; so in reality, you aren’t missing out on much by switching to vaporization from combustion!

HEMP OIL VS CBD OIL: THE NEED FOR CLARITY

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Confusion about the difference between hemp and cannabis oil has spiked recently due to the increase of cannabis-based products available on the market. Variety is a great thing considering every individual requires different concentrations and delivery methods. If you are new to cannabis vape oils or products, it can be difficult to know what is what.

In this article, we break down the differences between hemp oil (also known as hemp seed oil), cannabis oil and CBD vape oil.

Hemp and Cannabis: Whats the difference?

When trying to wrap your head around the differences between hemp and marijuana, it is essential, to begin with one simple fact. Both hemp and marijuana come from the same species of plant.

A Practical and Natural Taxonomy for Cannabis” published in 1976 explains:

“Both hemp varieties and marijuana varieties are of the same genus, Cannabis, and the same species, Cannabis sativa. Further, there are countless varieties that fall into further classifications within the species Cannabis Sativa.”

Their main difference, primarily in regards to oils, is in the number of cannabinoids (such as THC and CBD) that they contain.

There are close to four hundred natural compounds in both marijuana and hemp. Understanding the two most prevalent, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is the key to understanding the difference between hemp oil and cannabis oil. THC is the cannabinoid responsible for giving a high or ‘stoned’ feeling. CBD, on the other hand, is not psychotropic. Recently it has attracted a lot of attention from researchers, experts, and entrepreneurs.

CBD Harmony

Hemp Seed Oil

Hemp seed oil is an extract from the seeds of industrial hemp. Industrial hemp is the only plant used in crafting this type of hemp oil. Hemp seeds are cold pressed, peeled or unpeeled, to create a delicious nutty oil.

There are no cannabinoids, such as THC or CBD, present in hemp oil as the seeds are not psychoactive. Hemp oil is legal in most countries and found in food markets, together with more common types of oil, such as olive or coconut.

Hemp seed oil is known for its nutty taste and high levels of unsaturated fats, such as Omega 3 and Omega 6. It is used in many different applications from lotions to soaps, as a base for plastics instead of petroleum, and in eco-friendly paints.

Cannabis Oil

Cannabis oil is produced by extracting the resin of the female cannabis plant using a solvent. After the resin is dissolved in the solvent, it is evaporated leaving a concentrated extract behind. What is left is an extract with THC and/or CBD, that can be blended with hemp seed oil, olive or other types of carrier oils to facilitate ingestion. Cannabis vape oils contain varying levels of THC and can knock out even the most experienced of smokers.

CBD Oil

CBD-Rich Oil is a type of oil that contains CBD but does not contain THC.

CBD-Rich oil is extracted from cannabis flowers, mainly from CBD rich hemp strains. This extract can then be mixed with hemp seed oil, olive oil or other types of carrier oils to facilitate ingestion. CBD-Rich oil products are non-psychoactive and cannot be vaped, most often it is either added to food and drink or easily dropped under the tongue.

Cannabis Extracts: The Complete Guide

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History of cannabis extracts

Extraction of cannabis is a simple process, which people have used for centuries. There are many records of people using cannabis extracts as tea, hash or tinctures in ancient times. The first mention of hash dates back to the year 900 in Arabia, where people used to eat it rather than smoke it.

At the beginning of the second millennium, hash was spread all over the Middle East. It is likely that Napoleon and his troops brought hash to Europe from Egypt around the 1800s. A French doctor, Louis Albert-Roche, recommended the use of hashish in the 1840s. Later in Paris, the “Club des Hashischins” was established, where famous writers like Balzac, Baudelaire and Hugo enjoyed the exotic hashish which may have inspired some of their great masterpieces. People used cannabis tinctures up until 1942 in the USA and up until 1970 in the UK.

Nowadays, the science behind cannabis extraction has matured significantly, with more technologically demanding methods being used. The reason people carry out extractions is simple, and remains the same after centuries of practice – the final product is much more potent than the fresh herb, and there are more of the desired compounds present. Therefore it is easier to know the dosage. For example, fresh herb usually contains up to 30 % of THC and 24 % CBD, compared to concentrates which can be up to 99 % pure.

Cannabis Extracts Tinture

Cannabis Tinture

Plant material

According to the method of extraction, you have to select the appropriate parts of the cannabis plant to use. You can make an extract from all parts of the plant using solvents except for live resin extract which will be discussed later. Ultimately, to make high-quality concentrates you should always use dried and properly cured cannabis. cannabis extracts plant

Plant type

The plant type you use depends on your goal. If you want to have high-CBD extracts with no THC, you have to use hemp or CBD-rich cannabis strains with low THC content. It is very important to use only organically grown cannabis for extraction to avoid pesticides, chemical fertiliser or any other chemicals, that could be present in dense quantities within the final product. If you don’t grow the plant or make cannabis extracts yourself, be very careful about the growing and extraction method the producer used. The goal of extraction is to reduce the cannabis plant in rich extract full of the active compounds, not to have an extract full of chemicals, which could be potentially harmful.

During extraction, the resin is removed from the plant matter. People make the extraction to get as many cannabinoidsterpenes, and flavonoids as possible. They provide the final effect, taste, and smell of the concentrate. On the other hand, we don’t want to extract waxes, fatty acids, and chlorophyll since they are dangerous for consumption or make the extracts taste bad. There are many methods to make extracts which can be confusing for the consumer. Cannabis extracts are becoming more and more popular in the industry, so it’s important to know what exactly you are getting.

Extraction methods

There are two main groups of cannabis extracts. Solventless extracts, which are produced with no foreign substances, except water (which technically is a solvent), however, these extracts are not considered as “solvent-based”.  The most frequently used solvents are alcohol, butane, and propane. CO2 is not a solvent, even though methods using CO2 are considered solvent based too.

Solventless cannabis extracts

As the name says it itself, when you produce solventless cannabis extract you don’t use any chemical solvent. All you need is water, heat, pressure and a sieve.

solventless cannabis extracts

Hash

Hash is one of the oldest cannabis extracts known to humans. You can make hash using several different techniques. The most common process to make solventless hash is to use ice water to separate the trichomes from the plant matter since the trichomes contain most of the essential oils. When separated, they stick together and after they dry, they are pressed and the hash is ready!

Another method of making hash is the dry sift method. People prepare it using frozen buds, which are further broken down into small parts on the screen. Using this process, the trichomes are separated from the plant, falling through the sieve and are pressed into a hash-like consistency. The most potent hash is made using solvents, which we’ll talk about a bit later.

Cannabis extracts HashKief

Kief refers to the tiny, sticky, white crystals covering the cannabis flower, otherwise known as the resin glands/trichomes. They contain the largest amount of the active terpenes and cannabinoids. The purpose of trichomes is actually to deter predators in the wild. Extraction of kief is a very simple process; A three chamber grinder does all the work by separating the kief from the plant into the bottom chamber.Cannabis extracts kief

Rosin

Rosin has become very popular recently. It looks almost like a shatter, which you need to make using solvents (see below), but rosin is easier to produce since all you need is heat and pressure. Together they make the juice run out of the bud, hash and/or kief. The extract is juicy and translucent. If made properly, it keeps all the aromatic terpenes, and the potency can rise up to 70 % of THC.Cannabis extracts rosin

Solvent-based cannabis extracts

With the rising demand for cannabis products, technologies used for extracts are becoming more and more sophisticated. Legalisation has opened the door to many innovative ideas and methods to make different concentrates, and producers are always finding new solvents to get the very best from cannabis. However, it starts to become a little riskier to make and use extracts when one doesn’t have the necessary information. Firstly, the chemicals can explode. Secondly, the residual solvent can appear in the final cannabis extract, which is not desirable and can be dangerous to consume. So in case you buy these extracts, you should ask for certificates of quality.
solventbased cannabis extracts


Butane Hash Oil (BHO)

The title speaks for itself, BHO is made using butane. Different hydrocarbons (propane, butane, hexane, etc.) have been used since the 1970s for food extractions (e.g. canola and corn oil). The final product can have a different consistency which is responsible for the name of the extract for example; wax, shatter, honeycomb, oil, nectar, etc.

The solvent is run through the plant matter, which makes the desirable oils come out of the plant. To remove the residual solvent, the solution is heated (butane evaporates in low temperatures) in a vacuum. Then we are sure that there is no solvent left and the cannabis extract is very potent! Thanks to using hydrocarbons, we can have up to 90% of the cannabinoids in the extracts.

BHO Cannabis Extracts

BHO Cannabis Extracts

Honeycomb Cannabis Extracts

Honeycomb Cannabis Extracts

Shatter Cannabis Extracts

Shatter Cannabis Extracts

Wax Cannabis Extracts

Wax Cannabis Extracts

Rick Simpson Oil (RSO)

RSO is also known as Phoenix Tears. Rick Simpson came up with the production method himself. To make the extract using this method, you need to soak the whole plant in pure naphtha or isopropyl alcohol, which draws out the cannabinoids. After the solvent evaporates, the final extract is like a tar. People usually administer RSO orally or apply it to the skin.

WHAT EXACTLY IS CBD & ENDOCANNABINOID DYSFUNCTION?

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The cannabis plant secretes hundreds of chemical compounds, among these are cannabinoids. There are 85 cannabinoids that have been discovered so far, and two of them are produced in greater quantity: THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (Cannabidiol).

What Is CBD ?

CBD or cannabidiol is one of the most prevalent cannabinoids found in cannabis. It can be found more specifically in the trichomes, the resin glands of the female cannabis plant.

CBD concentrations tend to vary among different plants; cannabis grown for recreational purposes often contains more THC than CBD. However, by using selective breeding techniques, cannabis growers have managed to create varieties with high levels of CBD and next to zero THC levels (the psychoactive component of cannabis). Also, industrial hemp legally grown in most of Europe contains naturally from 1 to 5% CBD.

How CBD Works?

The difference in effect between CBD and THC is due to the different cannabinoid receptors they bind with.

THC activates the CB1 and CB2 receptors, while CBD does not directly stimulate them. Instead, CBD indirectly stimulates endogenous cannabinoid signaling, by suppressing the enzyme “fatty acid amide hydroxylase” (FAAH), the enzyme that breaks down anandamide the endogenous analogue of THC.

Less FAAH means more anandamide remains present in the body for a longer duration which results in a greater CB1 activation. So overall, CBD enhances endocannabinoid action by suppressing FAAH.

These receptors, CB1 and CB2, are part of a larger network called the endocannabinoid system (ECS) with receptors that spread throughout the brain and body.The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (central nervous system or “CNS”), but also in the lungs, liver and kidneys. The CB2 receptor is expressed mainly in the body, immune system and in hematopoietic cells.

Numerous studies suggest that CBD acts to reduce the intoxicating effects of THC, such as memory impairment and paranoia. CBD also appears to counteract the sleep-inducing effects of THC, which may explain why some strains of cannabis are known to increase alertness.

Both CBD and THC have been found to present no risk of lethal overdose. However, to reduce potential side effects, users may be better off exploring cannabis with higher levels of CBD.

When the user ingests CBD, the CB1 and CB2 receptors are stimulated to produce its own cannabinoids which enhance the overall effect on the body. So, when we take in CBD, terpenes or any other compound that can bind to the receptors within our ECS, we are supplementing a naturally occurring system.

cbd-structure

What Is Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency?

The endocannabinoid system is present in all humans and many animals as well. This system consists of a series of receptors that are configured only to accept cannabinoids.

Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD) was coined by Dr. Ethan Russo in 2004, to characterise symptoms found when there is not enough endocannabinoid system signaling. They found that the ECS regulates all sorts of bodily processes, including mood, metabolism, pain, reproduction, and immune functions. Furthermore cannabinoid receptors and the biochemical machinery necessary to synthesise and generate cannabinoids are present in areas of the brain known to control emotional behaviour.

Why isn’t the ESC more well-known?

Recent research has begun to highlight the potential role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in many situations. Unfortunately, research on the endocannabinoid system is sorely lacking despite the fact that cannabinoid receptors are found in abundance on all types of cells in different parts of the body.

Endocannabinoid Dysfunction

“There are more cannabinoid receptors in the brain than there are for all of the neurotransmitters put together” Russo declared.

The fact that we can find these receptors in such high concentrations and in crucial areas of the body like the brain, should mean that the ECS plays an integral part in our well-being.

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW BEFORE INVESTING IN CANNABIS

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With every niche on the market, the new opportunity to invest comes up. We consider cannabis industry as a novelty and a huge opportunity, which is hard to ignore for any investor.

There are two main possible ways to go, when desiring to invest in the industry. Either you can invest in producers, processors and retailers, who are directly connected with the plant or into the ancillary businesses as software engineers or consultants. The way you go depends on your risk awareness. The professionals connected directly are obviously riskier choice. However, with such a positive expectation of growth in the US, it seems like the investments will be in the right hands.

Changes can also be seen in Europe. Cannabis is decriminalized or legal in more than 10 countries already. It brings an opportunity to invest in European growers of legal marijuana, producers of legal hemp products or of course the auxiliaries as well.

The most important rules to invest in cannabis are following:

1. Know the industry
The fact, that you might be smoking cannabis, doesn’t make you any more informed about the industry itself. As any other investor, you need to keep up with the news and know what is going on.

2. Do your research
You should know which branch of the industry you are most interested in and how is the company performs on the market.

3. Know your risk tolerance
As mentioned before, only you know how risk-aware you are. Maybe you don’t feel like investing in the grower or producer for the first time, and rather go for consultant or marketing specialist in the cannabis industry. Based on that, you’ll find the right company to invest in.

DOES USING CBD RESULT IN A POSITIVE DRUG TEST?

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The difference between many hemp products and recreational cannabis is that these can contain little to no THC, which is the psychoactive component of cannabis. A common concern among many who use CBD or hemp extracts is the possibility of testing positive for cannabis use.

Basically, what is done is that a urine or hair sample is taken from you. With this, labs can perform a number tests to see if you have consumed any illegal substances recently. If they find that you have, it can result in disciplinary action, or even you losing your job.

You may be asking, do drug tests target the whole plant, or just a specific component? Many constituents of hemp, such as limonene and beta-caryophellene, are found in other species of plants that do not carry social stigma from any intoxicating abilities.On the other hand, CBD is not only a non-priority of cannabis drug testing, but has a different molecular structure to THC.

So, the short answer: No, one will almost never test positive for CBD oils that contain almost no THC.
It is not expected that taking the recommended dose of a hemp extract containing less than 1% THC will give a positive result. Overall, evidence points to a conclusion that non-psychoactive hemp oils, extracts and foods are safe to consume even in circumstances where a drug test may be requested.

What About Heavy Consumers?

In fact, to get technical, it is actually the main metabolite of THC, THC-COOH, which urine tests normally screen for – through a process of immunoassay screening.
Fortunately, this metabolite has very little crossover with other cannabinoids, such as CBG and CBD, so they should not flag up. However, when CBD is taken in excess (around 1000-2000 mg of hemp oil a day), it can return a false positive during the initial screening.

If they simply do urine testing, then anyone taking large amounts of CBD could be in trouble.
When an initial test flags positive, a second, more accurate test called a GC/MS is administered to the urine sample to confirm if it is an actual positive for THC (false positives on the first, less stringent test aren’t completely uncommon). Because of this second, confirmatory test easily differentiates between THC and CBD, even the heaviest of CBD oil consumers can rest assured that they won’t lose their job because of this alternative treatment. As long as they don’t consume THC, that is.

What Does It Mean for CBD Users?

Well, if you use CBD, use a lot of it, and think you are going to be subjected to a drug test at work, the best thing you can do is ensure that you are buying lab tested, high-quality CBD products. These are more likely to contain much less THC and will have a lab proven reading on content for you to look at. If you use small quantities of CBD, then you don’t really need to worry.
One of the keys to ensuring that the CBD oil one is consuming lacks THC is to obtain it from a legal, regulated source.

HOW TO GET HIRED IN THE CANNABIS INDUSTRY?

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As the legitimized cannabis business expands across U.S and U.E more and more companies are hiring employees in order to expand and succeed. Those interested in establishing successful careers in this rapidly growing industry are faced with a number of challenges.

There are a few important qualities that candidates can utilize when looking for employment in the legitimized cannabis world.

Ask the right questions

Working with cannabis involves being part of a movement that looks to change the mindsets of many people around the world. If the company’s mission is simply “to make money,” turn around and run in the other direction. There are plenty of industries where “pure financial gain” is a perfectly acceptable mission, but cannabis is not one of them. Find a goal and vision that you truly believe in, and are proud to stand for

Professional Versatility

Almost every job you can think of outside the marijuana industry can also be found inside the industry. There is a growing need for accountants, marketers, graphic designers, web developers, software engineers, and many other professional jobs that most people don’t associate with the marijuana industry.

With a balanced mix of cannabis grow culture and a sound business intellect, candidates will be a perfect fit for the legitimized corporate culture of cannabis.

In the end, the only thing that matters is if the candidate “speaks the languages” of both the underground culture of traditional cannabis growing, and the “real business world.” With a balanced mix of cannabis grow culture and a sound business intellect, candidates will be a perfect fit for the legitimised corporate culture of cannabis.

If a candidate wants to make himself or herself an asset, they should be prepared to learn as much as they can. More over, the unpredictable and moving legal nature of the cannabis industry requires both business owners and employees to be highly adaptable in order to stay afloat.

Creativity

Finally, when attempting to find work within the cannabis industry, it takes a creative mind to adapt one’s skills set for the business. If you fancy the cannabis industry, you need to have the ability to translate underground experience on a resume. This notion is entwined with the idea of moving from a home-based, underground business, into the legitimate cannabis industry.

It is essential that candidates “think outside the box” when translating one’s previous skills into a brand new business model.

WHAT’S INSIDE OUR CBD E-LIQUIDS?

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Harmony is dedicated to creating the most innovative and high-quality hemp products for you.

We use science, nature and business as tools to improve the quality and accessibility of cannabinoids so that there are no challenges, but only life improvement.

What’s Inside Our CBD E Liquids?

Harmony stands out in the CBD E Liquid crowd thanks to our unwavering commitment to quality and expertise: Our CBD concentration and composition are certified monthly by independent laboratories. This level of quality and consistency is only made possible by the hemp grown with love and care by family run farms that we have partnered with all around Europe.

CBD

Cannabidiol or CBD is one of over 400 compounds found in cannabis that belong to a class of molecules called cannabinoids. It is used as oil and in many types of cosmetic and food products. CBD is a non-addictive, non-toxic and non-lethal compound, that is why CBD is becoming a fast-growing trend among vapers today.

CBD Harmony